For years now, WordPress and PHP have been best buddies. Despite WordPress technically being a sub-framework built on top of PHP (with its own unique coding style, hooks, filters, and so forth), its reliance on underlying PHP functions has always been critical to steering WordPress development.
“WordPress core makes use of PHP extensions. If the preferred extension is missing WordPress will either have to do more work to do the task the module helps with or, in the worst case, will remove functionality.”
— WordPress Handbook
Most quality web hosting companies should already know what PHP extensions to install in order for WordPress to function optimally. But in some cases, a web host is using severely outdated documentation. In other cases, you might be setting up your own web server, such as a LEMP or LAMP stack, and you need to know what PHP extensions to install. Because LittleBizzy is built on top of SlickStack, all of these “required” and “recommended” PHP extensions are already installed for our hosting clients. You can also check out the free SlickStack script if you want a quick and easy way to setup your own WordPress server that works out-of-the-box.
Keep in mind that on Ubuntu servers when you run
install php7.2 it includes the following by default (and if you’re on Ubuntu 18.04 then you can use
install php instead):
libapache2-mod-php7.2 php7.2 php7.2-cli php7.2-common php7.2-json php7.2-opcache php7.2-readline
If you are installing a LEMP (Nginx) server and have no need for Apache, use
install php-fpm instead:
php7.2-cli php7.2-common php7.2-fpm php7.2-json php7.2-opcache php7.2-readline
Aah… that looks much, much better… Nginx ftw ;)
So now let’s compare the recommended list of PHP extensions with a few things. First, is it installed already? Second, is it really necessary? Here’s the official list of recommended PHP extensions:
curl -- Performs remote request operations. dom -- Used to validate Text Widget content and to automatically configuring IIS7+. exif -- Works with metadata stored in images. fileinfo -- Used to detect mimetype of file uploads. hash -- Used for hashing, including passwords and update packages. json -- Used for communications with other servers. mbstring -- Used to properly handle UTF8 text. mysqli -- Connects to MySQL for database interactions. libsodium -- Validates Signatures and provides securely random bytes. openssl -- Permits SSL-based connections to other hosts. pcre -- Increases performance of pattern matching in code searches. imagick -- Provides better image quality for media uploads. See WP_Image_Editor is incoming! for details. Smarter image resizing (for smaller images) and PDF thumbnail support, when Ghost Script is also available. xml -- Used for XML parsing, such as from a third-party site. zip -- Used for decompressing Plugins, Themes, and WordPress update packages.
WordPress.org also lists the following as fallback/optional extensions:
filter -- Used for securely filtering user input. gd -- If Imagick isn’t installed, the GD Graphics Library is used as a functionally limited fallback for image manipulation. iconv -- Used to convert between character sets. mcrypt -- Generates random bytes when libsodium and /dev/urandom aren’t available. simplexml -- Used for XML parsing. xmlreader -- Used for XML parsing. zlib -- Gzip compression and decompression.
Therefore rather than simply copying the recommended list from WordPress.org, which is aimed more at PHP 5.6 users and a general array of server environments, we’ve researched extensively to produce the below list of extensions you should install on PHP 7+ servers — with a focus on Ubuntu servers.
As you can see, knowing which PHP extensions to install for your WordPress stack might depend on your operating system, PHP version, and whether you are using Nginx (alone) and/or Apache as your server. Therefore, the final solution might be slightly different in each case — however, if you are using SlickStack (or any other LEMP stack), then we recommend installing the below list of extensions for PHP 7.2:
Last updated: Feb 6, 2020
bcmath -- used by several plugins for mathematic calculations cli -- used for shell-based scripts and commands (included in php-fpm installation) common -- several general sub-modules (included in php-fpm installation) curl -- used for many remote server requests dom -- for validating certain textual content (included in the xml extension now) fileinfo -- detects basic MIME type info for file uploads (included in php7.2-common installation) filter -- used for securely filtering user input (included in php7.2-common installation) hash -- for various hashing (included in php7.2-common installation) fpm -- performant PHP engine used by LEMP/Nginx servers (included in php-fpm installation) gd -- backup WordPress image extension in case of issues with Imagick iconv -- used to convert between character sets (included in php7.2-common installation) imagick -- preferred WordPress image extension for media resizing, thumbnails, etc. json -- for remote server communication (included in php-fpm installation) libsodium -- validates signatures and generates random bytes mbstring -- used to properly handle UTF8 text mysql -- "improved" (mysqli) MySQL interface merged into this Ubuntu package openssl -- permits SSL-based server connections (included in php7.2-common installation) pcre -- opcache -- Zend OPcode caching for PHP scripts (included in php-fpm installation) readline -- used for CLI related functions (included as part of php-fpm installation) simplexml -- not needed if you have xml module installed soap xml -- for various XML parsing xmlreader -- not needed if you have xml module installed zip
zlib -- not recommended (gzip should be done by the server)
The following extensions are officially recommended by we do not recommend them:
Thus you’ll find the following install command in SlickStack for Ubuntu 18.04 servers:
sudo apt install php7.2-fpm php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-imagick php7.2-libsodium php7.2-mbstring php7.2-mysql php7.2-soap php7.2-xml php7.2-zip
Or a simpler way to say this in Ubuntu 18.04:
sudo apt install php-fpm php-bcmath php-curl php-gd php-imagick php-libsodium php-mbstring php-mysql php-soap php-xml php-zip
https://devanswers.co/installing-php-nginx-ubuntu-18-04/Last modified: 7 Feb, 2020
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